Design & Development & Testing of Metals and Alloys

Obtaining the right microstructure of metals and alloys is tricky and can make you either a winner or a looser

Design & Development & Testing of Metals and Alloys

An alloy is generally viewed as a partial or complete solid solution of one or more elements in a metallic matrix. Complete solid solution alloys give single solid phase microstructure, while partial solutions give two or more phases that may be homogeneous in distribution depending on thermal or heat treatment history. Alloys usually have different properties than their constituent component elements. Alloying one metal with other metal(s) or non-metal(s) often enhances its properties. For example, steel is stronger than iron, while iron is its primary element. Physical properties, such as density, reactivity, Young's modulus, electrical and thermal conductivity of an alloy may not differ greatly from those of its elements, but engineering properties, such as tensile and shear strength may be substantially different from those of the constituent materials. This can sometimes be due to the different sizes of the atoms in the alloy, because larger atoms exert a compressive force on neighboring atoms, and smaller atoms exert a tensile force on their neighbors, helping the alloy resist deformation. Sometimes alloys may exhibit marked differences in behavior even when small amounts of one element are introduced. As an example, impurities in semi-conducting ferromagnetic alloys result in different properties. Some alloys are made by melting and mixing two or more metals. Brass is an alloy made from copper and zinc. Bronze, used for bearings, statues, ornaments and church bells, is an alloy of copper and tin. Contrary to pure metals, alloys generally do not have a single melting point. Instead, they have a melting range in which the material is a mixture of solid and liquid phases. The temperature at which melting begins is called the solidus and the temperature when melting is complete is called the liquidus. However, for most alloys there is a particular proportion of constituents (in rare cases two) which has a single melting point. This is called the alloy's eutectic mixture.


AGS-Engineering has metals and alloys expertise in the following subject areas:

  • Metallurgy, metal processing, alloys, casting, forging, molding, extrusion, swaging, machining, wire drawing, rolling, plasma and laser processing, heat treatment, hardening (surface and precipitation hardening) and more.

  • Alloying technology, phase diagrams, designed metal properties and alloy processing. Metal and alloy prototype design, fabrication and testing.

  • Metallography, microstructures, and atomic structures

  • Metal and metal alloy thermodynamics and kinetics

  • Metal & alloy properties and use. Suitability and selection of metals and alloys for various applications

  • Welding, soldering, brazing and fastening of metals & alloys. Macro and micro welding, mechanical properties of welded joints, fiber metallurgy. Weld Procedure Development (WPD), Weld Procedure Specification (WPS), Procedure Qualification Report (PQR), Welder Performance Qualification (WPQ), weld inspection complying with AWS Structural Steel Codes, ASME, Boiler & Pressure Vessel Codes, Navy-Ships, and Military Specifications.

  • Powder metallurgy, sintering and firing

  • Shape memory alloys

  • Bi-layered metal parts.

  • Testing and characterization of metals and alloys. Techniques such as mechanical tests (elasticity, tensile strength, torsion strength, shear testing, hardness, microhardness, fatigue limit…etc.), physical tests, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM & TEM, metallurgical microscopy, wet chemical tests and other material characterization techniques. Destructive and nondestructive testing. Investigation of physical, mechanical, optical, thermal, electrical, chemical and other properties. Custom test development for structural components, fasteners and the like.

  • Investigation of metal failure, study of corrosion, oxidation, fatigue, friction and wear.

  • Positive Material Identification, verification and identification of the base material of vessels, boilers, piping, cranes using techniques such as non-destructive portable hand held X-ray Fluoresce  Machine (XRF), XRF alloy analyzer at any time. XRF instrument can provide qualitative and quantitative analysis, it can identify the elements, measure the concentration of each element and display them on the unit. A second technique we use is Optical Emission Spectrometry (OES). The main advantage of Optical Emission Spectrometry is the linear dynamic concentration of the analysis starting from parts per billion (ppb) levels to parts per million (ppm) levels and the ability to analyze multiple elements simultaneously.

  • Equipment Testing (Turbines, tanks, hoists….etc.)

  • Structural engineering calculations involving metals and alloys, structural analysis and design, structural stability analysis (e.g. buckling analysis…etc.), Calculations of minimum retirement thickness for pressure vessels, metal pipes, tanks….etc.

  • Cleaning, coating and finishing of metal products, electroplating and electroless plating….etc.

  • Surface treatment, heat treatment, chemical heat treatment

  • Coatings, thin and thick films of metals and alloys, metallization

  • Durability and lifetime improvement

  • Review, development and writing of procedures and documentation such as Standard Operating Procedures (SOP)

  • Expert witness & litigation support


We apply mathematical analysis and computer simulations to predict results and provide guidance to our clients. We also perform lab tests whenever needed. Comparing analysis with real world tests builds confidence. Using advanced mathematical and simulation techniques, we predict kinematics (motion modeling), force profiles (static and dynamic), structural analysis, tolerance analysis, FEA (dynamic, non-linear, basic thermal) and others. Here are some methods and software & simulation tools we use in working with metals and metal alloys:

  • 2D and 3D development work using tools such as AutoCad, Autodesk Inventor and Solidworks

  • Finite Element Analysis (FEA) based tools

  • Thermal analysis and simulation using tools such as FloTHERM, FloEFD, FloMASTER, MicReD, Coolit, SolidWorks, CADRA, In-house design tools

  • Customized MathCAD / excel spreadsheet calculations for structural analysis and design

  • Other subject specific tools for metal casting, extrusion, forging….etc., such as FLOW-3D Cast, MAGMA 5, Click2Extrude, AutoForm-StampingAdviser, FORGE…..etc.

Every year we manufacture and ship many containers of metal and metal alloyed parts, components from our sources in Southeast Asia to our customers around the globe, mostly in the US and EU states.  Therefore metals and metal alloys are an area we have long time experience in. If you are mostly interested in our manufacturing capabilities instead of engineering capabilities, we recommend you to visit our custom manufacturing site